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高考英语语法之 -----★宾语从句

管理员1    时间:2022-07-28 12:59    访问23次 有用[0] 无用[0] 举报


概述


置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。


2宾语从句的特点

⒈ 宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。

⒉ 宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序

⒊ 连接词that 引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。

⒋ whether和if都可引导宾语从句,但whether 后可紧跟or notwhether从句可作介词的宾语

⒌ 如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.


3宾语从句中引导词的用法


在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

连词:that(that 常可省略),whether,if

代词:who,whose,what,which

副词:when,where,how,why等。


⒈ that 引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that 可以省略)


①可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:say,think,insist,wish,hope,demand,imagine,wonder,know,suppose,see,believe,agree,admit,deny,expect,explain,order,command,feel,dream,suggest,hear,mean,notice,prefer,request,require,propose,declare,report等。

如:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

注意:当主句谓语动词是think,believe,suppose,expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。

如:I don't think it is right for him to treat you like that.

② 在以下情况中that不能省略

⑴ 当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

如:He said(that)you were too young to understand the matter and that

he was asked not to tell you.

当主句的谓语动词与 that 宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

如:Just then I noticed for the first time,that our master was wearing

his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

当that 从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

如:I can't tell him that his mother died.

注意:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

如:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.


⒉ 由whether,if引导的宾语从句

① 由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

如:I wonder whether(if)they will come to our party.

只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句

在带to的不定式前

如:We decided whether to walk there.

在介词的后面

如:I'm thinking of whether we should go to see the film.

在动词后面的宾语从句时

如:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week.

直接与or not连用时

如:I can't say whether or not thet can come on time.

只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

⑴ if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”

如:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

⑵ if引导否定概念的宾语从句时

如:He asked if I didn't come to school yesterday.

引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好像)时

如:He talks as if he has known all about it.


⒊ 连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

用于这种结构的动词有:

see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

如:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?

英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

如:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.


4宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。

如:I don't know what they are looking for.

Could you tell me when the train will leave?

Can you imagine what kind of man he is?


5宾语从句的时态


⒈ 主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。

如:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.


⒉ 主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

如:She was sorry that she hadn't finished her work on time.


⒊ 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

如:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

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