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管理员1    时间:2022-04-09 09:58    访问86次 有用[0] 无用[0] 举报

The business of influencing is not frivolous. It’s serious


Influencers are becoming brand ambassadors—even for the poshest of brands


LUXURY BRANDS used to speak in monologues. News about their latest collections flowed one way—from the boardroom, via billboards and editorial spreads in glossy magazines, to the buyer. In the age of social media, the buyers are talking back. One group, in particular, is getting through to fashion bosses: influencers. These individuals have won large followings by reviewing, advertising and occasionally panning an assortment of wares. Their fame stems not from non-digital pursuits, as was the case with the A-list stars who used to dominate the ranks of brand ambassadors, but from savvy use of Instagram, Snapchat or TikTok. Their posts seem frivolous. Their business isn’t.


For consumers, influencers are at once a walking advert and a trusted friend. For intermediaries that sit between them and brands, they are a hot commodity. For the brands’ corporate owners, they are becoming a conduit to millennial and Gen-Z consumers, who will be responsible for 70% of the $350bn or so in global spending on bling by 2025, according to Bain, a consultancy. And for regulators, they are the subject of ever closer scrutiny. On March 29th news reports surfaced that China’s authorities are planning new curbs on how much money internet users can spend on tipping their favourite influencers, how much those influencers can earn from fans, and what they are allowed to post. Taken together, all this makes them impossible to ignore.

【1】conduit 渠道 【2】bling 珠光宝气的穿戴 【3】tip 给..小费


Few reliable estimates exist of the size of the influencer industry. One in 2020 from the National Bureau of Statistics in China, where influencers gained prominence earlier than in the West, estimated its contribution to the economy at $210bn, equivalent to 1.4% of GDP. As with many things digital, the pandemic seems to have given it a fillip, as more people were glued to their smartphones more of the time.

【1】to give a fillip to sth 促进某事 【2】to have one's eyes glued to sb/sth 目不转睛地盯着某人/某物


EMarketer, a firm of analysts, estimates that 75% of American marketers will spend money on influencers in 2022, up from 65% in 2020 (see chart). Brands’ global spending on influencers may reach $16bn this year, more than one in ten ad dollars spent on social media. Research and Markets, another analysis firm, reckons that in 2021 the middlemen made $10bn in revenues globally, and could be making $85bn by 2028. The ranks of firms offering influencer-related services rose by a quarter last year, to nearly 19,000.

分析师公司EMarketer估计,到2022年,75%的美国营销人员将把钱花在网红身上,这一比例高于2020年的65%(见图表)。今年,各大品牌在全球网红上的花费可能达到160亿美元,超过十分之一的广告花费在社交媒体上。另一家分析公司Research and Markets估计,2021年,中间商在全球的收入为100亿美元,到2028年可能达到850亿美元。去年,提供网红相关服务的公司数量增加了四分之一,达到近19,000家。

The influencer ecosystem is challenging the time-honoured tenets of luxury-brand management. Apart from being one-directional, campaigns have tended to be standardised, unchanging and expensive. An exclusive group of white actresses with the right cheekbones was supposed to signal consistency, as well as opulence. The same smile from the same photograph of the same Hollywood star would entice passers-by to purchase an item for many years. Julia Roberts and Natalie Portman have been the faces of Lancôme’s bestselling La Vie est Belle perfume and Miss Dior, respectively, for a decade. Stars and brands alike are tight-lipped about how much money changes hands, but the figures are believed to be in the millions of dollars. One report put the amount spent by LVMH on the entire Miss Dior campaign at “under $100m” in the past year.

【1】time-honoured 由来已久的 【2】tenet 信条 【3】opulence 奢侈;华丽 【4】tight-lipped 口紧的

网红生态系统正在挑战奢侈品牌管理的悠久原则。除了单向之外,广告活动往往是标准化的、一成不变的、昂贵的。一个由好看颧骨的白人女演员组成的专属群体被认为是一致性和富裕的标志。同一位好莱坞明星的同一张照片上的同样笑容,会吸引路人多年来购买某件商品。十年来,Julia Roberts和Natalie Portman分别一直为兰蔻最畅销的香水La Vie est Belle和Miss Dior的代言人。明星和品牌都对转手金额守口如瓶,但据信这个数字高达数百万美元。一份报告称,去年LVMH集团在整个“Miss Dior”广告活动上的支出“不到1亿美元”。

Such star-led campaigns can feel aloof to teenagers and 20-somethings who prize authenticity over timeless glamour. And influencers, with their girl- or boy-next-door charm, offer this in spades—for a fraction of the fee of a big-name star. The best ones are able to repackage a brand’s message in a way that is harmonious with their voice, their followers’ tastes and their platform of choice (Instagram is best for all-stars with over 2m followers and TikTok for niche “micro-influencers” with up to 100,000 followers and “nano-influencers” with fewer than 10,000).

【1】aloof 冷漠的;超然的 【2】in spades 大量的 【3】all-star 全明星的


Influencers are particularly adept at navigating social-media platforms’ constantly evolving algorithms and features. For example, when Instagram’s algorithm seemed to begin favouring short videos (“reels”) over still images, so did many influencers. As social-media apps introduce shopping features, influencers are combining entertainment and direct salesmanship. Such “social commerce” is huge in China, where it was invented. In October 2021 Li Jiaqi, better known as Lipstick King, notched up nearly 250m views during a 12-hour streaming session in which he peddled everything from lotions to earphones ahead of Singles’ Day, that country’s annual shopping extravaganza. He and Viya, a fellow influencer, flogged $3bn-worth of goods in a day, half as much again as changes hands daily on Amazon.

【1】notch up 获得 【2】flog 出售


Many influencers manage their production in ways that traditional ambassadors never could. They are video editors, scriptwriters, lighting specialists, directors and the main talent wrapped into one. Jackie Aina, whose beauty tips attract over 7m followers across several platforms, explains the importance of high-quality equipment that can show texture, accurate colour grading—“Not to mention the lighting.” Ms Aina’s 30-second lifestyle TikToks can take hours each to make.

许多网红以传统品牌大使无法做到的方式管理他们的作品。他们集视频编辑、编剧、灯光专家、导演和主要才艺于一身。Jackie Aina的美容秘诀在几个平台上吸引了超过700万粉丝,她解释了能够显示纹理、准确颜色分级的高质量设备的重要性,“更不用说照明了。” Aina女士30秒的生活方式TikToks可能需要花费数小时来制作。

This production value, combined with access to the influencers’ audiences, translates into value for the brands. Gauging how much value, precisely, is an inexact science. Launchmetrics, an analytics firm, tries to capture it by tracing a campaign’s visibility across print and online platforms. The resulting “media impact value” (MIV) reflects how much a brand would need to spend to gain a given degree of exposure—itself indicative of the expected return from a marketing drive. On this measure, which brands use to see how they stack up against rivals, the three-day wedding of Chiara Ferragni, an Italian with 27m Instagram followers, a fondness for pink and a Harvard Business School case study, generated a total of $36m in MIV for brands including Dior, Prada, Lancôme and Alberta Ferretti, which made the bridesmaids’ gowns. That compares with $25m for the more conventional—and almost certainly pricier—video campaign for Louis Vuitton’s autumn/winter 2021 collection for which the fashion house enlisted BTS, a hit South Korean pop group.

【1】stack up 相比

这种产品价值,再加上接触网红的受众,就转化成了品牌的价值。精确地衡量价值是一门不精确的科学。一家名为Launchmetrics的分析公司试图通过追踪一个广告活动在印刷和在线平台上的可见性来捕捉它。由此得出的“媒体影响价值”(MIV)反映了一个品牌需要花多少钱才能获得一定程度的曝光,这本身就表明了市场营销活动的预期回报。根据这一衡量标准,品牌可以用来衡量自己与竞争对手的实力,在 Instagram 上拥有2700万粉丝的意大利人Chiara Ferragni,在其为期三天的婚礼,为包括Dior、Prada、Lancôme以及Alberta Ferretti在内的品牌创造了总计3600万美元的MIV,这些品牌是伴娘礼服的制作者。Chiara Ferragni喜欢粉色,其也是哈佛商学院的案例研究。相比之下,LV与韩国热门流行组合防弹少年团合作为其2021年秋冬系列拍摄的视频广告的MIV为2500万美元,视频广告更为传统,而且几乎肯定会更贵。

As well as new opportunities, influencers present new risks, especially for brands whose luxury identities rely on price discipline and exclusivity. Influencer-led live-streamed shopping events in China by Louis Vuitton and Gucci were ridiculed for cheapening their brand. And full-time influencers’ large teams can run up quite a tab. Adam Knight, co-founder of TONG Global, a marketing agency with offices in London and Shanghai, notes how Lipstick King’s live-streaming success has fuelled demand for his services among brands—but also his own kingly demands. Mr Li’s fees, commissions and exclusive perks only pay for themselves if the event is a smash hit. Otherwise, Mr Knight says, the client’s profit “just completely erodes”.

除了新的机遇,网红们也带来了新的风险,尤其是对那些依靠价格规律和专营权来确立奢侈品牌身份的品牌而言。LV和Gucci在中国的由网红主导的直播购物活动被嘲笑为降低了他们品牌的价值。全职网红的大团队可能会赊账大笔费用。在伦敦和上海都设有办事处的市场营销机构TONG Global的联合创始人Adam Knight指出,口红一哥的网络直播成功推动了各大品牌对其服务的需求,但也刺激了他自己的要价需求。只有在活动大获成功的情况下,一哥的费用、佣金和独家优惠才会自付。否则,Knight先生表示,客户的利润将“被完全侵蚀”。

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