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英语省略句的类型及用法

管理员5    时间:2020-05-18 11:33    访问191次 有用[0] 无用[0] 举报
  小学英语语法也是学习英语知识的必备基础,语法的掌握能够快速的帮助学生掌握英语句子的学习,下面小编就给大家推荐英语省略句的类型及用法:

  在英语语言中,为了使语言简洁明了,重点突出或上下文紧密相连,可以省去某些句子成分而保持句子原意不变,这种语言现象称之为省略。现就英语中的种种省略现象分析如下:

  一、并列复合句中的省略

  在并列句中后边的分句可以省略与前边分句中相同的成分。如:

  a) The boy picked up a coin in the road and (the boy ) handed it to a policeman. 这个男孩在马路上拾起一枚硬币并把他交给了警察。

  b) Your advice made me happy but(your advice made) Tom angry .你的建议使我高兴但使汤姆生气。

  c) Tom must have been playing basketball and Mary (must have been)doing her homework. 汤姆肯定一直在打篮球,玛丽一直在写作业。

  d) Gao Xiumin was born in 1959 and Fu Biao (was born) in 1963.高秀敏出生于1959年,傅彪出生于1963年。

  二、主从复合句中的省略

  1.状语从句中的省略

  一般说来省略现象多出现在下列五种状语从句中:1)由 when ,while ,as ,before, after , till, until, once等引导的时间状语从句;2)由whether ,if , unless 等引导的条件状语从句;3)由though , although ,even if ,whatever等引导的让步状语从句;4)由 as ,than 等引导的比较状语从句;5)由as, as if , as though 等引导的方式状语从句。上述状语从句在省略时应遵循下面原则:

  1) 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,可以省略状语从句的主语和系动词be,这时从句中可出现如下结构:(1) 连词(as, as if , once)+ 名词; (2) 连词( though, whether , when)+形容词;(3) 连词(whether, as if ,while )+介词短语;(4) 连词(when , while , though )+ 现在分词; (5) 连词(when ,if ,even if ,unless ,once ,until, than , as ) + 过去分词; (6) 连词(as if ,as though ) + 不定式。如:

  a) Once (he was)a worker ,Pang Long now becomes a famous singer .庞龙曾经是个工 人,现在变成一位著名的歌手。

  b) Work hard when (you are) young ,or you'll regret.趁年轻要努力学习,要不然你会后悔的。

  c) He looked everywhere as if (he was)in search of something .他到处看似乎在找什么东西。

  d) While (he was) holding talks with President Hu Jintao ,US President George W. Bush thanked China for its important role in the Six-Party Talks.美国总统布什在与胡锦涛主席会谈时,感谢中国在六方会谈中起的重要作用。

  e) The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected .这次展览比被预料的有趣的多。

  f) Olympic gold medallist hurdler Liu Xiang opened his lips as if (he were) to speak。奥林匹克金牌获得者跨栏运动员刘翔张开嘴好像要说什么。

  注意:

  1) 当从句的主语和主句的宾语一致时,间或也有这样的省略,如:

  Her father told her to be careful when (she was)crossing the street.当她过马路时父亲告诉她要当心。

  2) 当从句的主语是 it,谓语动词中又含有系动词be 时,可以把it和系动词be一起省略。此时构成连词(if , unless ,when , whenever)+形容词的结构。如:

  Unless (it is) necessary ,you'd better not refer to the dictionary.如果没有必要,你最好不要查字典。

  2.定语从句中的省略

  1) 一般说来,在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词 that ,which , whom 可以省略;如:

  Is this reason (that) he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?这就是他在会上解释他工作中粗心的原因吗?(2002上海春季)

  而在非限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词 which , whom 不可以省略。试比较:

  Tom (whom) you saw yesterday fell ill.( whom可以省) 你昨天见到的汤姆病倒了。

  Tom , whom you saw yesterday ,fell ill. ( whom不可以省) 汤姆病倒了,你昨天见到他了。

  2)在口语和非正式用语中,关系副词when ,where , 和 why 经常用that 来代替,甚至还可省略。如:

  a) This is the first time (when/that)he had trouble with the boss.这是他第一次麻烦老板。

  b) He wants to find a good place (where/that) we can have a picnic during the “golden week ”holiday .他想找一个能在黄金周期间野餐的好地方。

  c) Could you tell us the reason (why/that)he was so unhappy ? 你能告诉我们他为什么如此不高兴吗?

  3)当先行词为表示方式的 the way 时 ,从句不能用 how 来引导 ,应该用that 或 in which ,或将它们全部省略。如:

  I don't like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.我不喜欢你嘲笑他的行为。

  3.宾语从句中的省略

  1)在及物动词后面所接的宾语从句中,连词that 一般可以省略;但如果及物动词后面是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列的宾语从句 ,那么只有第一个that可以省略。如:

  a) I think (that) the reform of the renminbi's exchange rate is necessary. 我认为人民币兑换率的改革是必要的。

  b) He said (that)the Anti-secession law had been passed and that President Hu Jintao had signed a presidential order 他说《 反分裂国家法》已被通过,而且胡锦涛主席已签署了主席令。

  2)由 which , when ,where , how,和 why 引导的 宾语从句,可以全部或部分省略。如:

  a) I know that NBA star Yao Ming will come to our city but I don't know when (he will come to our city).我知道NBA明星要到我们城市来但我不知道他什么时候来。

  b) He wants to move abroad but his parents wonders why (he wants to move abroad)他想搬迁到国外但他的父母想知道为什么。

  4.在与suggest ,request ,order ,advise 等词相关的名词性从句中,须用虚拟语气形式“should +动词原形”,should可以省略。如:

  Chirac, President of the Republic of France suggested that the China-France Culture Year (should) last long in various forms.法国总统希拉克建议中法文化年以各种各样的形式长期持续。

  5.主句省略多用于句首。如:

  (It is a ) Pity that I didn't go to Mary's birthday party yesterday.很遗憾,我昨天没有去参加玛丽的生日聚会。

  6.在答语中,主句可全部省略。如:

  —Why were you absent from school last Friday ?—(I was absent from school)Because my mother was ill. —上周五你为什么没有上学? —因为我妈妈病了。

  以上就是关于英语省略句的类型及用法的全部内容了,希望能够给大家带来帮助,其次,想要了解更多英语知识,请继续关注本网站。
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